Liechtenstein Blockchain Act: How can nearly any right and therefore any asset be tokenized based on the Token Container Model?

The Liechtenstein Blockchain Act

Figure 1: Milestones of the Liechtenstein Blockchain Act coming into force on January 1, 2020 (Source: NÄGELE Attorneys at Law LLC, 2019)

The Token Container Model

Figure 2: Token Container Model representing a right on a diamond in a container such that it can be transferred easily without moving the physical asset in custody (Source: NÄGELE Attorneys at Law LLC, 2019)

The physical validator has the duty to integrate the physical with the digital world

Tokenization of any right and asset

Figure 3: Examples for the Token Container Model (based on Dünser, 2018)

Tokenization follows a life cycle

Figure 4: Overview of 5 of the 10 registration requirements (source: NÄGELE Attorneys at Law LLC, 2019)

Liechtenstein and other countries

Liechtenstein: “straightforward tokenization” without workarounds


  • Blockchain knowledge: We wrote a Medium article on how to acquire the necessary blockchain knowledge within a workload of 10 working days.
  • Our two blockchain books: We have edited two books on how blockchain will change our society (Amazon link) in general and the everything related to finance (Amazon link) in particular. Both books are available in print and for Kindle — currently in German and soon in English. The authors have been more than 20 well-known blockchain experts in startups, corporations and the government from Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein — all contributing their expertise to these two books.
Our two books: the first one on blockchain and the society and the second one on blockchain and finance




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Philipp Sandner

Philipp Sandner


Professor | Lecturer | Author | Investor | Frankfurt School Blockchain Center