Decentralized Finance (DeFi): What Do You Need To Know?

  • DeFi favors network effects, the true innovation is created by uniquely combining the applications.
  • While it may be difficult to determine which blockchain protocols and applications will get the most usage long-term, currently the advanced decentralization, programmatic flexibility and the truly enthusiastic developer base gives Ethereum the lead.
  • For Ethereum, going forward, the fate of adoption of DeFi is tied to the scalability and usability of Ethereum.
  • DeFi has yet to prove it is a true improvement. Currently, the usability is unintuitive, risk-adjusted pricing is non-existent and the liquidity cannot compete with the centralized alternatives. Nevertheless, we are bullish that these are issues of a nascent ecosystem.

What’s the buzz about DeFi?

Defining DeFi:
“An ecosystem comprised of applications built on top of public distributed ledgers, for the facilitation of permissionless financial services.”

Ethereum leads total numbers and activity of DeFi (source: own data)
DeFi usage remains nascent on all blockchains (source: own data)
Daily transaction volume in USD; EOS might be an outlier (source: own data)

The rise of DeFi

Comparison of locked money with the top 6 protocols on a monthly basis in million USD (source: own data)

What are now the core benefits of DeFi?

  • True decentralization allows censorship resistance, worldwide participation regardless of social status and dispenses trusted third parties.
  • Utilizing blockchain as technological infrastructure allows relatively speedy and low-cost transactions/settlement, the immutability of the financial contracts, and contract automation.
  • DeFi applications generally allow that the user remains in possession of the private keys. This is referred to as non-custodial in the blockchain ecosystem. The user is in full control of the money without a trusted third-party.
  • Increased ecosystem transparency and thus price and market efficiency. Minimal principal-agent risks, as asymmetric information are non-existent and the personal interests are governed by a transparent protocol.
  • DeFi favors network effects, as a lot of innovation is generated by uniquely combining different projects in layer 2 or even layer 3 applications.

Then why hasn’t it yet skyrocketed?

  • The DeFi ecosystem is a field of technical experiments and innovation. Accessibility is global but yet unintuitive in terms of UX. Furthermore, as it is based on cryptocurrencies, converting traditional currencies into cryptocurrencies has to be done as a pre-requirement.
  • The liquidity is outpaced by centralized alternatives. This is important as liquidity is pivotal for efficient pricing in the financial industry. In fact, most protocols are currently unable to compete as efficient low-fee competitors. In the light of double-digit stability fees, MakerDAO is currently not used as a permissionless credit provider but rather it serves as a decentral way to create leverage in Ethereum. By converting ETH to DAI and reinvesting this into ETH, this follows the centralized strategy of leveraged long positions.
  • Products are overcollateralized: as there is currently no credit scoring or shared collateral, many products must be overcollateralized (sometimes as high as 150%), which reduces the leverage for professional traders or the opportunity to obtain access to capital that the user does not own. Traditional credit scoring based on identity or sophisticated deleveraging systems, liquidation algorithms and insurance funds allows a high capital efficiency in centralized systems. This should be an avenue of research.
  • The technical risks, such as bugs in smart contracts or blockchain layer, are tough to detect because of the novelty of these approaches. By design, false or fraudulent transactions are irreversible on the blockchain.
  • Further, there are operational risks, due to the failure/manipulation of price feeds (so-called oracles) and complex governance protocols.
  • DeFi poses a potentially systemic risk arising from the interdependencies of DeFi protocols. This can be observed at MakerDAO’s too-big-too-fail status, arguably the most critical piece of infrastructure within DeFi given space’s reliance on oracles and stablecoins. Despite this, MakerDAO is open source and mostly decentralized which at least in part neutralized the too-big-too-fail argument. Yet at present, market participants are faced with few viable alternatives to the dominant lending protocol and its oracles.
  • Network congestion: In times of high usage, Ethereum has had a few clogging issues on its blockchain. If the network gets congested, a transaction can remain in a pending state, which ultimately results in market inefficiency and information delays.
  • Transaction costs such as on-chain gas fees: as transactions are competing based on gas fees, transactions with lower gas fees may be left pending at lower priorities.
  • Timing issues as the state of the blockchain is updated on average every 15 seconds, this is very uncommon for traditional finance. In DeFi interest and prices are calculated per block and for robust operation, it requires stable block mining.

Different Use Cases of DeFi

Summary of use cases for DeFi

Let’s take a look into the future


  • Blockchain knowledge: We wrote a Medium article on how to acquire the necessary blockchain knowledge within a workload of 10 working days.
  • Our two blockchain books: We have edited two books on how blockchain will change our society (Amazon link) in general and the everything related to finance (Amazon link) in particular. Both books are available in print and for Kindle — currently in German and soon in English. The authors have been more than 20 well-known blockchain experts in startups, corporations and the government from Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein — all contributing their expertise to these two books.
Our two books: the first one on blockchain and the society and the second one on blockchain and finance





Professor | Lecturer | Author | Investor | Frankfurt School Blockchain Center

Love podcasts or audiobooks? Learn on the go with our new app.

Recommended from Medium

Crypto Unicorns NFT Game Launches on Polygon Mainnet

What is DeFi? The potential and the obstacles of DeFi. Binance DeFi products

Futures Foundation: Key Trends to look forward to in 2022.

Swarm: Inside Ethereum’s Push to Create a Decentralized Internet

FMX has listed Step Finance (STEP) for spot and futures trading

Binance to invest $500M in Web3 Projects

What is DeFi and How is it Changing NFTs Right Now?

NULS/Nerve to Collaborate with DeFi Platform FarSwap

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Philipp Sandner

Philipp Sandner

Professor | Lecturer | Author | Investor | Frankfurt School Blockchain Center

More from Medium

Top Emerging Blockchains in 2022: NEAR (1/3)

Master Ventures Inv. Mgmt. Partners with Yellow Network to Transform Blockchain Industry

On-Chain Metrics | 06.24.2022

Future Crypto Value Accrual