We have designed an 18-week long program with 3 phases that will help ambitious and young career starters to break into the decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem. Our goal is to guide the way for you to become entrepreneurs, technologists, lawyers, investors, or multiplicators in the surging DeFi space. This program is completely free, you just have to apply. We will admit a maximum of 100 applicants to this program starting on October 11, 2021. The application deadline is September 22, 2021.

Introduction

With this program, we seek to empower innovators to dive into blockchain technology, in particular DeFi, to become leaders…


Digitization is taking hold of entire industries, including in Germany. The area of the “Internet of Things (IoT)”, in particular, promises revolutionary, new types of business models. In this context, the term IoT refers to the increasing connection of machines and devices to the Internet. These devices are equipped with digital identities to communicate with each other and execute processes autonomously without human intervention. This trend will become increasingly relevant in the future. For example, the total number of IoT devices is expected to rise to 75 billion by 2025, according to estimates. — Authors: Maximilian Forster, Jonas Gross, Anja…


Digitization is taking hold of entire industries, including in Germany. The area of the “Internet of Things (IoT)”, in particular, promises revolutionary, new types of business models. In this context, the term IoT refers to the increasing connection of machines and devices to the Internet. These devices are equipped with digital identities to communicate with each other and execute processes autonomously without human intervention. This trend will become increasingly relevant in the future. For example, the total number of IoT devices is expected to rise to 75 billion by 2025, according to estimates.Maximilian Forster, Jonas Gross, Anja Kristina…


The central question to be elaborated in this article is which governance requirements must be met for the implementation of blockchain solutions in a consortium, especially emphasizing a decentralized IoT marketplace. For this, a short analysis based on the three pillars of governance (decision rights, accountability and incentives) will be presented. Also, a brief comment on several stakeholders will be given, showing that a decentralized IoT marketplace is feasible for all parties if designed properly. — Authors: Philipp Sandner and Marcel Kaiser

What is governance?

To examine which importance governance has for this topic, it needs to be clarified what governance is. Governance…


Tokenization holds great potential — especially in the real estate sector. Any asset can be replicated in digital form so that transactions can be executed at low cost, with no minimum investments, from anywhere in the world and with 24/7 market access. However, a liquid secondary market must exist for these benefits to fully unfold. At present, these buyer markets have not yet emerged. The challenge is no longer infrastructure, but the shortage of liquidity in the securities token markets, which is primarily due to a lack of trust and regulation that is still unclear. For a healthy growth and…


Coinbase is publicly listed as of April 14, 2021. The market capitalization of Coinbase is estimated at US $100 billion. The crypto exchange’s growth is astonishing and has taken old-established financial institutions by surprise. Particularly traditional exchanges’ reactions will be located somewhere in a continuum between jealousy and awe. Coinbase’s success, culminating in its stock market launch, is a wake-up call for financial intermediaries and investors to take decisive action or to brace themselves for the turbulences ahead. — Authors: Philipp Sandner, Jong-Chan Chung

Coinbase leaves the established competition behind

Founded in 2012, Coinbase is the largest US-based centralized crypto currency exchange platform with 6.1 million…


With this article, we provide a toolkit on how to use Hyperledger in industrial DLT projects. This toolkit has been developed with other IT companies and also together with machinery manufacturers. It also includes code snippets to showcase how machines can be connected to to DLT networks with Hyperledger such that new business models can be explored. See the PDF link to the document (60 pages) below. Authors: Martin Schäffner, Constantin Lichti, Jonas Gross, Philipp Sandner

Distributed ledger technology (DLT) has the potential to address industrial challenges, build trust, and unlock new value across businesses and industries via the use…


Executive summary

At Frankfurt School Blockchain Center, we are hiring 2 x 50% positions for May and June, 2021. Job position can partly be compared to a trainee/association position in a consulting company or other corporation: project management, business development, research, consulting etc.

Ideally, we are searching smart young tech-savvy people that have a finished Bachelors’ degree or a finished Masters’ degree. Preferred fields: mixture between business and computer science; or tech-savvy business people. Requirements: tech orientation, blockchain knowledge, some business development capabilities, both professional level of German and English language. Gender and age are of course irrelevant. …


This paper sheds light on metrics that are correlated with the price of crypto assets. We conduct a literature analysis to derive such metrics and apply them to the market price of selected ERC-20 tokens. We find that monthly active addresses, as an approximation of a token’s user base, and the Bitcoin price, as a representation of the market, share a positive relationship, while monthly active addresses of stablecoins share a negative relationship with the price of the examined token. — Authors: Alexander Stober, Philipp Sandner

Download the article as a PDF file. More information about the the Frankfurt School…


Blockchain technology and the interest in Bitcoin is picking up momentum. A few companies such as MicroStrategy decided to exchange their liquid funds denominated in US dollars to Bitcoin. The European Union has set out its proposal to regulate crypto assets as of 2022 for the entire European Union and its 450 million citizens. Furthermore, companies like PayPal want to enhance their service offerings to crypto currencies. Initially starting in the United States, eligible users can now buy and sell Bitcoin via PayPal. Soon, Germany’s supervisory authority BaFin is expected to grant first licenses to crypto custodians, thus legitimating Bitcoin…

Philipp Sandner

Professor | Lecturer | Author | Investor | Frankfurt School Blockchain Center

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